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Adsorption Process Has Been Gaining Its Popularity As An Effective Alternative For Separation Processes. Two Fundamental Properties That Determine The Adsorption Rate Are The Adsorption Equilibrium And The Mass Transfer Limitation. The Adsorption Isotherm Is Obtained From Batch Studies. The Mass Transfer Coefficients Of The Batch Studies Need To Be Extracted By Matching The Model With The Experimental Data. For Dye Adsorption On Activated Carbon, Concentration Dependent Surface Diffusivity Is The Most Important Mass Transfer Parameter And Must Be Included In The Study. The Pore Diffusivity Should Also Be Included To Improve The Accuracy Of The Simulation. In This Work, A Mathematical Model For Adsorption Rate Was Developed Based On The Film-Poreconcentration Dependent Surface Diffusion (FPCDSD) Model. The Governing Partial Differenti...
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is the best choice to achieve high data rate transmission in wireless environment. OFDM system shows many favorable property such as high spectral efficiency, robustness to channel fading and immunity to impulse interference. However, there are some obstacles in using OFDM in transmission system, which is in contrast to its advantages. One of the major drawbacks is a very high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the OFDM signals. Therefore this paper analyzes the capability of code repetition (CR) to reduce PAPR in WLAN/OFDM system. The analysis is on a network model designed by WLAN 802.11a standard using Matlab, a mathematical simulation software tool. The network model has been simulated in AWGN channel environment to investigate the behavior of PAPR and BER performance. The propos...
Single crystal of Congruent LiNbO3 (CLN) was grown by the Czochralski method in an air atmosphere with ADC (Automatic Diameter Control) r.f. heating. In this study, the optimum conditions required to grow high quality CLN single crystal are described. The high quality CLN single crystal with growth direction of ?001? was produced by effective control of growth conditions. The luminescence spectra from LiNbO3 is due to change?transfer in the niobate octahedron, and is strongly affected by the concentration of Li vacancies. For CLN single crystal at room temperature under 300nm wavelength excitation, the emission maximum is 760 nm. There are significant differences between the intensity of component emission band in the X, Y and Z cut crystals. Luminescence decay times and intensity variations gives a qualitative measure of both purity a...
Kajian Ini Bertujuan Untuk Menilai Keberkesanan Tanin Yang Diekstrak Daripada Serbuk Tandan Sawit Kosong (TSK) Sebagai Agen Perencat Karat Dan Juga Sebagai Penipis Lumpur Gerudi. Daripada Kajian Yang Dijalankan, Didapati Peratusan Hasil Pengekstrakan Tanin Secara Rendaman Menggunakan Pelarut Aseton 70% (V/V) Ialah 4.49%. Kehadiran Tanin Disahkan Melalui Analisis Spektroskopi Infra-Merah (IR) Yang Dijalankan Terhadap Hasil Yang Diekstrak Keluar. Keberkesanan Tanin Sebagai Agen Perencat Karat Dikaji Melalui Pemerhatian Tindak Balas Melalui Spektroskopi Inframerah, Analisis Mikroskop Elektron Imbasan (SEM) Dan Spektroskopi Sinar-X Serakan Tenaga (EDX). Keputusan Ujian Yang Dijalankan Mendapati Bahawa Tanin Yang Dihasilkan Boleh Berfungsi Sebagai Agen Perencat Karat. Ketulenan Tanin Dianalisis Menggunakan Spektroskopi Ultra Ungu Nampak (...
This paper presents the application of wavelet transform analysis method to the heart sounds signal. The heart sounds is a non-stationery signal, thus it is very important to study the frequency and time information. One of the time-frequency analysis methods is short time Fourier transforms. However, the STFT analysis is limited by the time and frequency resolution. The wavelet transform was introduced to curb the resolution problem in STFT. The wavelet transform is a multi-resolution time-scale analysis that gives high resolution for low frequency components and low resolution for high frequency components. Since majority of heart sounds component lies in low frequency, thus the application of wavelet transform to heart sounds is very suitable. Results in time-frequency representation clearly show that the wavelet transform is capabl...
In recent years, wireless applications using radio frequency (RF) have been rapidly evolving in personal computing and communications devices. Bluetooth technology was created to replace the cables used on mobile devices. Bluetooth is an open specification and encompasses a simple low-cost, low power solution for integration into devices. This research work aim was to provide a PAN (personal area network) for computer based mobile robot that supports real-time control of four mobile robots from a host mobile robot. With ad hoc topology, mobile robots may request and establish a connection when it is within the range or terminated the connection when it leaves the area. A system that contains both hardware and software is designed to enable the robots to participate in multi-agent robotics system (MARS). Computer based mobile robot prov...
Hot-mix asphalt (HMA) has reasonably served well in the past. The high tire pressures and increased wheel loads of traffic moving on roads is primarily considered as the major cause of increasing the premature rutting of asphalt pavement. Therefore, it has become necessary to improve HMA mixtures to withstand the increased stresses. Many road pavement agencies have been using Marshall Mix Design method for designing HMA mixtures and it is believed that fundamental changes must be made in the aggregate components of HMA to reduce rutting to tolerable levels. Properties of Hot-mix asphalt mixtures such as stability, durability, and resistance to permanent deformation (rutting) can be largely affected by aggregate gradation. Hence, gradation is considered as the centerpiece property of aggregate that influences the performance of asphalt ...
The reaction of an autonomous mobile robot to dynamic, uncertain, and changeable environments is one of most difficult issues in control of intelligent autonomous robot movement. Fuzzy control appears as a very useful tool for handling intelligent reactive navigation. The present work deals with building of fuzzy behavior based reactive navigation for obstacle avoidance, and proposes a method to blend and coordinate multi-behaviors at the same time. This method using a fuzzy technique and fixed priority value to reflect the importance of the behavior. We have built our simulation and animation programs that can reflect online the robot movement using a graphical user interface
Influenza or more popular is called flu is a kind of disease caused by virus which infect system of respiratory. Virus of influenza spread by direct contact with a host, so it is needed a quarantine and isolate program to rein it. By quarantine and isolate, formulation of reproduction number are made, by then is to determine a strategy to rein the virus. As a verification of formula obtained, we study the avian influenza at Central Java on September 2005 – April 2008.
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