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This study was focused to the effect of shear rate on asymmetric polysulfone membrane structure and gas separation performance. Flat sheet asymmetric membranes were formed using an optimized ternary casting solution. The asymmetric membranes with the molecular-oriented skin layer were prepared by a simple dry/wet phase inversion technique with forced convection using a newly developed pneumatically-controlled casting system. Experimental investigation was conducted focus on different casting speed, thus representing different rheological conditions. Casting speed was varied from 5s to 60s, as known that varying casting speed would vary shear rate. Rheologically induced molecular orientation on the skin layer of membrane was measured using fourier transform attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to examine if higher shear r...
Kertas kerja ini membentangkan penggunaan kaedah ukur rujuk secara amali di sebuah syarikat memproses seramik. Sesebuah organisasi yang menggunakan kaedah ukur rujuk perlu melakukannya dengan betul dan tepat agar ia dapat mencapai hasil yang diharapkan. Kertas kerja ini membincangkan dan menumpukan teknik ukur rujuk luaran dari aspek pemprosesan, produktiviti dan kualiti produk. Sebuah syarikat pemprosesan seramik telah melaksanakannya dengan kajian kes dan pembangunan model yang melibatkan empat fasa utama. Ia diikuti dengan usaha-usaha peningkatan prestasi. Keputusan ukur rujuk juga di paparkan dalam kertas kerja ini.
The reason for this study is to see the difference among Bumiputera Entrepreneur with Non-Bumiputera Entrepreneur at Johor Bahru. This study is to identify the difference on the level of motivation that is : level 1 for physiology needs, level 2 for security needs, level 3 for social needs, level 4 for appreciation needs and level 5 for self actualization among them. Beside that this study do look into the difference of motivation characteristics that are level of initiative in running the business, the return of investment and the experience of running the business towards the level of motivation dimension for Bumiputera Entrepreneur and how far the achievement they achieve. Respondents of this study were the Bumiputera Entrepreneur that is 125 Malays and for Non-Bumiputera Entrepreneur there is 100 Chinese and 25 Indian at location o...
Rapid advances in the development of high performance polymeric membrane for gas separation were seen in 1980’s. However, recent findings still conform to the limits known as “upper bound trade-off curve� which was defined by Robeson in 1991 for both glassy and rubbery polymers. Blend of high performance molecular sieving particles in polymers, known as mixed matrix membrane (MMM), offer the potential to combine the excellent gas separation properties of molecular sieving materials with the processability of the polymers. The current commercial glassy polymer could provide the commercially acceptable minimum performance of matrix phase compares to rubbery polymer. This paper attempts to present an overview of the research in the MMM for gas separation using glassy polymer as the continuous phase. The impact of this technology in ...
6FDA/PMDA-TMMDA [copoly(4,4’-methylenebis(2,6-dimethyl)-2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxy- lphenyl) hexafluoro propane/pyromellitic) diimide], a new co-polyimide was synthesized and different solvents were utilized to alter the morphology of resultant membranes. Membranes were then pyrolyzed to produce Carbon Molecular Sieve membranes (CMSMs). The effects of the different morphologies of co-polyimide precursors and the pyrolysis temperatures (protocols) on the gas transport performance were studied. CMSMs were characterized with XRD, TGA-FTIR and gas permeation tests. It was found that higher pyrolysis temperature resulted in lower permeability and higher selectivity. Interestingly, CMSMs derived from precursors with different morphologies exhibited different permeabilities at the pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C. However, when the pyrolysis tem...
The effect of shear rate during membrane fabrication on the performance of membrane-assisted lead acid battery has been investigated. The application of lead acid battery normally faces the problem of water decomposition. This phenomenon is due to the factor of charge-discharge reaction in the battery and heat accumulation caused by hot tropical climate and heat generated from engine compartment. Gas separation membranes were prepared through dry-wet phase inversion method using various polysulfone concentrations and different shear rates. Each of these membranes was applied on the battery vent holes for the purpose of retaining electrolyte from evaporating to the atmosphere. The most suitable membrane, which retains the most electrolyte will be chosen to be applied on the soon-to-be developed membrane-assisted maintenance free battery...
Exclusive breastfeeding exactly means is that baby given breastfeeding only, without any drinking or foods. Survey held on 2002 showed that the rate of exclusive breastfeeding program on 4-5 months very low, in urban area is 4-12%, however in rural area is 4-25%. Exclusive breastfeeding program on 5-6 months in urban area is 1-13%, however in rural area 2-13%. This research was purpose to know factors contributing to the failure of exclusive breastfeeding program on Kecamatan Tembalang, Semarang according to place of birth and birth medical practician. This research use qualitative method and descriptive type in order to make identification and analyze process of failure factors contributing exclusive breastfeeding easier. The research held on Kecamatan Tembalang, Semarang under Kedungmundu and Rowosari Public Health work authority. Re...
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