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The upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is a system in which substrate passes first through an expanded sludge bed containing a high concentration of biomass. The sludge in the reactor may exist in granular or flocculent form. Most of the substrate removal takes place in sludge bed and the remaining portion of the substrate passes through a less dense biomass, sludge blanket. UASB reactor is one of the innovative high rate anaerobic digester that able to biodegrade the oil and grease (O&G) in palm oil mill effluent (POME). This study aimed to evaluate the biodegradation of O&G in raw POME using UASB. The objectives of this study were to determine the O&G biodegradation and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies for the treatment of POME using UASB and evaluate the UASB’s performance in relation to various contro...
Standard Backpropagation Algorithm (BP) is a widely used algorithm in training Neural Network that is proven to be very successful in many diverse application. This algorithm utilizes two term parameters which are Learning Rate, α and Momentum Factor,β. Despite the general success of this algorithm, there are several drawbacks and limitations which some of them are the existence of local minima, slow rates of convergence and some of the modification of BP algorithm requires complex and costly calculations at each iteration, which offset their faster rates of convergence. To overcome this problem, a third learning parameter, Proportional Factor (γ) has been proposed by Zweiri et. al., (2003). This new algorithm is called Three-Term BP. This study investigates the performance of Three-Term BP and compares its performance with standa...
Local Agenda 21 was introduced in the Earth Summit Conference held in Rio de Janeiro. LA21 is a programme towards sustainable development and emphasized on the cooperation Local Authority and participation from the public. To realize LA21, cooperation from Local Authority is very important. This is because, Local Authority is direct involved in promotion sustainable development. To achieve the sustainable development, Local Authority must get the involvement from the society, private sector, NGO and others. The cooperation and participation from the society are necessary to achieve LA21’s objective. Based on towards the people, the study truss to know the extend of their knowledge and understand towards LA21. The finding revel that even through the public do not understand about LA21 but the society do get involve in the programme. T...
In many real-time systems, relative timing constraints are imposed on a set of tasks. Generating a correct ordering for the tasks and deriving their proper start-time assignments is a Nondeterministic Polynomial Problem (NP) hard problem; it subsumes the Non-preemptive Scheduling Problem. Real-time systems are characterized by the presence of timing constraints on the computations carried out by the system. Examples are found in domains such as avionics, process control and robotics, where a computer is used to control and manipulate a physical system. Real-time systems are characterized by computational activities with timing constraints and classified into two categories, hard real-time system and soft realtime system. In hard real-time system, deadline missing can be catastrophic. However, in the case of soft real-time systems, slig...
This study investigated the enantioselective esterification of (R,S)-1- phenylethanol in isooctane. Lauric acid was used as acyl donor in the acyl transfer reaction. Six commercial immobilized lipases; Lipase PS-C, Lipase Sol-Gel-Ak, Chirazyme L2, c.-f., C2, lyo, Chirazyme L2, c.-f., C3, lyo, ChiroCLEC-CR and ChiroCLEC-PC were screened for their resolution activities. Lipases from Pseudomanas cepacia (ChiroCLEC-PC) and Candida antarctica Lipase B (Chirazyme L2, c.-f., C3, lyo) showed higher resolution activities and therefore used in the subsequent study. The kinetic studies were carried out in a batch stirred tank reactor. The enzyme activity and enantioselectivity were determined by varying the enzyme loadings, substrate concentrations from 25 - 250 mM, chain length of fatty acids from C12 – C18, organic solvents with logP value fr...
Many countries nowadays have serious problems concerning site layout for locating the construction materials and waste. Construction materials and waste should be managed properly especially for high rise buildings. As such, Geographic Information System (GIS) has been applied in the construction management. GIS is a software-based technology that is now thriving in Malaysia. It has been implemented in many agencies and department for various applications such as military, hydrological modeling and environmental monitoring. Managing the materials data that is needed at construction site by using conventional method is a laborious task. The implementation of GIS in construction management may improve the traditional method in the preparation of the geographic information. MapInfo was chosen as a software to develop a database system for...
Crosstalk, signal attenuation, and nonblocking type are considered the most critical issues that limit the switch density in photonic switches. The research is a theoretical study to develop high-density photonic switch architectures with reduced crosstalk and attenuation and improved nonblocking performance. Four photonic switching networks have been proposed based on lithium niobate (LiNbO3) directional couplers. They are called NWN, NSN, SCS, and NMN networks. Ideas from the theory of circuit switching have been considered and space dilation techniques have been adopted using new approaches. The properties of the proposed networks have been examined and formulated. Comparison with other well-known designs has also been presented and analyzed. All proposed networks suit unicast connections with the NMN network also capable of multica...
In aquatic environment, metals can exist in many physicochemical forms or species that can be classified based on their particle size and toxicity. The toxicity of the metals species can be explained by the development of toxicity model which are made in two steps in this research. The first step was to determine the toxic value of metal using bioassay method and speciation calculated by MINTEQA2 software, and second step was done by the linearity relationship that exists between toxic value and species concentrations that were analysed by ridge regression method. The evaluation of toxicity model for several metals species Al(III), As(III), Fe(III), Mn(II) and Zn(II) for sets of water quality data from previous studies was carried out to measure whether the metal species are toxic (negative value of the coefficient regression) or non-t...
This research was carried out to determine the current practice and perception that teachers and students have about the Literature Component incorporated into the English language subject designed for the Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah (KBSM). The information acquired from this research was used to propose a suitable teaching model that could be adopted in the training of pre-service teacher trainees in the Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) programme in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. For data collection, two sets of questionnaires were designed. The first set was distributed to 26 secondary school teachers; while the other set was circulated among 420 form one to form five secondary school students in the area of Johor Bahru. The overall findings of this research show that both teachers and students have very positive...
The mesoporous molecular sieves MCM-41 and MCM-48 have been hydrothermally synthesized from rice husk ash as an active source of silica in the presence of organic surfactant as structure-directing agent. The surfactant-templated approach has created periodic porosity as well as catalytic functions (acid-base, redox and host for catalytically active sites) in the molecular sieve catalysts. A deliberate design of pores is possible in the pore size range of 2 to 10 nm with controlled chemical compositions and structures. Mesoporous oxides in which metals (Ti, Zr, V, Nb, Mo, W, Mn, Fe, Co, Sn, Li, Cs, La) partially substitute for silicon in the porous network of MCM-41 and MCM-48 were prepared via two routes: (i) the post synthesis thermal treatment of silica mesophases by the “molecularly designed dispersion” technique and, (i...
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