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This book was translated from English to Malay. The attached/given chapter explains the responsibility of an engineer in systematic exploration over a given site. Other chapters covered are minerals and rock, superficial deposition, subsurface water, etc.
The technique of using on-site injection of oil contaminated drill cuttings is attracting considerable attention as a cost effective means of complying with environmental legistation concerning discharge of drilling wastes. The slurrification and injection of oil based cuttings into a casing annulus, a process developed in 1989 by a majjor oil and gas producer/operator, has proven to be a significant step toward reduction of such environmental waste. This paper discusses the development of the cuttings reinjection, slurrification, slurry properties and benefits of quality slurry, and behaviour of soild laden slurries in a fracture in conjuction with downhole disposal operations.
Kertas kerja ini membincangkan kajian awal yang telah dibuat mengenai kemungkinan sabut kelapa sawit digunakan sebagai bahan tambah kehilangan bendalir dalam operasi penyimenan telaga minyak. Serbuk sabut kelapa sawit dicampurkan dengan Simen Portland API Kelas G dan diuji sifat kehilangan bendalirnya pada suhu dan tekanan tertentu menggunakan Alat Penguji Kehilangan Bendalir. Keputusan yang diperoleh dibandingkan dengan D60, iaitu bahan tambah kehilangan bendalir komersial yang digunakan secara meluas di lapangan. Keputusan uji kaji ini menunjukkan bahawa sabut kelapa sawit mempunyai potensi yang amat baik untuk dijadikan bahan tambah kehilangan bendalir.
Understanding proteins functions is a major goal in the post-genomic era. Proteins usually work in context of other proteins and rarely function alone. Therefore, it is highly relevant to study the interaction partners of a protein in order to understand its function. For this reason, the main objective of this thesis is to predict protein-protein interactions based only on protein primary structure. Using the Support Vector Machines (SVM), different protein features have been studied and examined. These features include protein domain structures, hydrophobicity and amino acid compositions. The results imply that the protein domain structure is the most informative feature for predicting protein-protein interactions. It also requires much lower running time compared to the other features. However, using normal binary SVM requires posit...
Protein sequence annotation is important for the preservation and reuse of knowledge, for content-based queries, and for the understanding of its function. Traditional wet-lab methods are labor intensive and prone to human error. Alternatively, existing tools are time intensive and require high investment in computing facilities for offline usage. On the other hand, these tools are highly dependent on internet stability and speed for online usage. Therefore, a simple and practical computational method that is more accurate, faster, easy to configure and use, and bears low computing cost is needed particularly for offline usage. In this study, a Gene Ontology (GO) based protein sequence annotation tool named extended UTMGO is developed to meet these features. The GO is selected because of its ability to provide dynamic, precisely define...
Ripping is a process of breaking harder ground by dragging tines attached to a bulldozer. Rippability of materials in moderately weathered (grade III) to completely weathered (grade V) has always been vague where the material behaviour is not fully understood due to their ‘rock-soil’ characteristics. This research is to examine factors that influence the rippability and establish a comprehensive method that effectively assessed the weathered sedimentary rock masses. The assessment of rock mass properties was mainly based on recording the presence, nature, orientation and occurrence of discontinuities. The information gathered from the monitoring was used for determining the excavatability of rocks. Monitored ripping tests were conducted at four different locations namely; Bukit Indah, Mersing, Kempas and Desa Tebrau which consisted...
Buah pisang, selain bergizi tinggi, juga memiliki banyak manfaat bagi kesehatan. Selain itu, buah pisang yang belum masak memiliki kandungan pati yang cukup tinggi, mencapai 70% dari berat keringnya. Oleh karena itu, buah pisang merupakan alternatif yang tepat sebagai sumber pati selain padi, gandum, dan jagung. Selain mencari sumber pati baru, industri makanan modern, juga perlu mengetahui sifat fungsional pati tersebut seperti kelarutan, daya pembengkakan, dan kapasitas penyerapan air. Hal ini bertujuan untuk mempermudah dalam memvariasikan penggunaan pati pisang dalam berbagai macam industri makanan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh waktu dispersi dan konsentrasi sodium bisulfit serta untuk menentukan kondisi optimum pada proses pembuatan pati pisang. Dalam penelitian ini, konsentrasi sodium bisulfit dan waktu ...
Pembangunan ekonomi merupakan suatu proses perubahan perekonomian dari yang semula sebagian besar pedesaan dan pertanian, menjadi sebagian besar perkotaan, industri dan jasa-jasa dalam kompetisinya. Perkembangan suatu wilayah telah menyebabkan inovasi, spesialisasi, diversivitas, dan anonimitas yang dapat menciptakan cara hidup yang berbeda yang disebut dengan istilah urbanisme (Louis Wirth dalam Bintarto, 1984).
Penyendat pengeluaran ialah satu daripada peralatan subpermukaan yang penting. Alat ini dipasang di dalam sesebuah telaga dan fungsi utamanya adalah untuk memastikan bendalir reservoir mengalir masuk ke dalam rentetan tetiub masing-masing sebelum menuju ke permukaan dalam keadaan terkawal. Penyendat kekal dan penyendat boleh cabut ialah dua kumpulan utama penyendat pengeluaran yang digunakan secara meluas di luar pesisir Terengganu. Model penyendat kekal yang kerap kali digunakan ialah OTIS WD, manakala penyendat boleh cabut yang digunakan ialah Baker A-5, OTIS RDH dan lain-lain lagi.
The flow of crude oil from oil reservoir to the surface is controlled by the pressure difference between the subsurface pressure and wellhead pressure at the platform. The pressure drop is also required to pump the crude oil from the platform to the inland processing plant. A significant amount of heavy paraffin components may solidify to form needle-like crystals as the flow temperature reaches the temperature of supercritical fluid. The drop of temperature is due to heat losses to the surrounding and low initial operation temperature. The crystallisation temperature is measured via the Differential Scanning Calorimeter. The Scanning Calorimetry method provides the initial indication of phases transition at simulated heat loss at isobaric condition. The result was correlated to flow properties such as the pour point and fluid rheology.
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