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The BASEBALL WORLD SERIES has been played in Cleveland 5 times, when the CLEVELAND INDIANS won the American League championship in 1920, 1948, 1954, 1995, and 1997. They went on to win the series in 1920 and 1948. Cleveland played the Brooklyn Dodgers in a best-of-9 series in 1920. The Indians were led by player-manager TRIS SPEAKER and pitchers Jim Bagby and STANLEY COVELESKI. The series was to have opened in Cleveland, but the first 3 games were played in Brooklyn while seats were added to Cleveland's LEAGUE PARK. Coveleski won the first game, 3-1. Brooklyn won games 2 and 3, 3-0 and 2-1. Coveleski won again in game 4, 5-1. The 5th game, won by Cleveland 8-1, is one of the most famous World Series games. In that game, Cleveland's ELMER SMITH hit the first World Series grand slam home run. Bagby added a 3-run homer, the first by a pi...
CONGREGATIONALISTS. Congregationalist churches, part of the United Church of Christ (UCC) since 1957, were among Cleveland's first and most influential religious institutions. The UCC was the first major denomination to place its national headquarters in Cleveland (1990). Congregationalists were active in the first years of the town's growth and, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, conducted much of the city's mission work among immigrants. They have maintained their traditionally autonomous churches, liberal theology, ecumenical orientation, and vigorous social activity. In the town's early years Congregationalists vied with PRESBYTERIANS to establish churches. Under the Plan of Union, Presbyterians and Congregationalists united to evangelize the western U.S. Most of the churches under the plan, after brief attempts to combine ...
ARTHUR, ALFRED F. (8 Oct. 1844-20 Nov. 1918), was a noted tenor, cornetist, conductor, educator, composer, and compiler. Son of Hamilton and Margaret (Hanna) Arthur, he was born in Pittsburgh and received his early training in Ashland, Ohio, and at the Boston Music School. Following further education in Europe and service in the CIVIL WAR (1861-65), he moved to Cleveland in 1871. He was active as a choral conductor, most notably with the CLEVELAND VOCAL SOCIETY which he founded in 1873 and conducted through 29 seasons. Arthur also conducted a short series of purely orchestral concerts at Brainard's Piano Rooms in 1872, which mark a real beginning for orchestral music in Cleveland. These programs included vocal solos, waltzes, and other light pieces by Strauss, along with overtures and parts or all of symphonies by Haydn, Beethoven, and...
GOLDHAMER, SAMUEL (1884-28 Feb. 1982), was the executive director of the JEWISH COMMUNITY FEDERATION (JCF) from 1907-48 who initiated a community fund to expedite fund raising, a concept which spread throughout the country. Goldhamer was born in Cleveland to Max and Lena (Keller) Goldhamer. He attended Brownell School and CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL. Goldhamer worked for various clothing firms before joining the JCF as its first paid employee (a clerk) in 1907. Under Goldhamer's direction, the number of agencies represented by the JCF surpassed 100 by the 1940s. On 5 Oct. 1907 Goldhamer married Lena Klein (d.1976); the couple lived in SHAKER HEIGHTS with sons Morton L., Walter M., and Robert H. In his free time, Goldhamer traveled and painted in watercolors and oils. Goldhamer died at his home. Goldhamer, S. Why Doncha Write a Book? A Half...
CROATIANS. In 1990 Greater Cleveland contained over 15,000 people whose primary ancestry was Croatian, the 4th-largest concentration of Croatians in the U.S., after Pittsburgh, Chicago, and New York. During the two world wars, and in the period 1950-70, Cleveland was a main center of Croatian and South Slavic political, fraternal, and cultural activities. A South Slavic people, the Croatian immigrants to Cleveland were part of a centuries-long migration from Croatia. The exodus reached its peak ca. 1910, repeated some 50 years later. All waves of Croatian immigration to Cleveland and America were caused by the political and economic situations of a homeland under the oppressive regimes of Austria-Hungary and both royal and Communist Yugoslavia. Before 1919, most Cleveland Croatians were natives of southern and northwestern Croatia; aft...
CRIME. Although crimes were committed in Cleveland almost immediately after the arrival of the first settlers, it is hard to find criminal acts documented in any of the social or intellectual histories of the city or the WESTERN RESERVE. This historical quiet persisted, even though as Cleveland grew and became more complex, crime statistics grew and the social and individual circumstances leading to illegal misbehavior became more involved. With the exception of sensational murder, historians of the Western Reserve have been reluctant to chronicle the area's crime life, even though abundant documentary evidence exists attesting to this particular aspect of the area's history. Cleveland's first instance of crime traditionally occurred when the early settler LORENZO CARTER punched a fellow frontiersman. Since the town's early regulations...
CEMETERIES, although meant for the dead, exist for the living, as artifacts of settlement effected by circumstances, custom, and style. Cuyahoga County's cemeteries, after 2 centuries, show variety. The more than 135 tallied recently include existing sites, cared for and abandoned, those relocated, and those only remembered. They are diverse--large and small; plain and fancy; public, private, and sectarian; inclusive and exclusive; for animals as well as humans. Some cemetery myths obscure facts. The oldest tombstone, for example, seldom reliably dates a Cuyahoga County site, for as civilization encroached upon old graveyards, they were often moved to new, convenient locations. To rebut some other myths, cholera deaths were not the cause of cemeteries, nor were early sites embellished with prehistoric Indian mounds. One inexorable and ...
CHINESE. Cleveland's Chinese population began to grow only after the 1860s. However, their numbers were small; in 1880 they were counted in the census with the Japanese, totaling 23. The 1890 census showed 38 Chinese, and by 1900 their number exceeded 100. The settlers were all Cantonese--from China's southern province of Guangdong (Kwangtung), of which Canton, now Guangzhou, is the capital. The southerners among the Chinese were more ready to venture out of the country, and had migrated to all the countries in Southeast Asia and to Australia and New Zealand. The Chinese who settled in Cleveland did not come directly from China but moved here eastward from the West Coast. Their first settlement was on the street west of Ontario St., now W. 3rd St.; then they occupied a row of brick buildings on Ontario St. between PUBLIC SQUARE and St....
CZECHS. Cleveland's Czech community forms one of the city's oldest and largest ethnic groups. Approx. 37,000 people of Czech birth or background resided in the metropolitan area in the 1990s. The term Czech refers collectively to Bohemians, Moravians, and Silesians. Czechs immigrated to America and settled in Cleveland in 3 distinct waves. The first major migration began when political persecution by the Austrian government forced many well-educated Czechs to flee their homeland. Some had participated in an unsuccessful revolt against the Austrian government in 1848. Peasants and skilled craftsmen from the villages also immigrated to America between 1848-70. Unlike some immigrant groups of this period, the Czech immigration consisted primarily of family units whose intention was to settle permanently, many hoping to homestead in Nebras...
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