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LIBRARIES, ARCHIVES, AND HISTORICAL SOCIETIES In general, the development of libraries, historical agencies, and archives in the WESTERN RESERVE has followed patterns experienced throughout the Old Northwest Territory. There are some differences, in part dictated by location, population trends, wealth, and select creative individuals. During Cleveland's first 70 years, libraries and historical societies offered few indications of their future national preeminence. The libraries, literary associations, and reading rooms which formed prior to the Civil War were generally organized as stock companies or subscription libraries with membership fees. Hard economic times or lack of interest often contributed to their demise. Only one, the CLEVELAND LIBRARY ASSN. (est. 1848), left a lineal descendant that existed in the 1980s. Of necessity, C...
BLACK MILITARY UNITS, prohibited by state officials and Ohio's militia law of 1803, served in the CIVIL WAR nonetheless. However, legal restriction of militia service to whites was not removed in Ohio until 1878. Beginning in 1861, Cleveland blacks (see AFRICAN AMERICANS) eagerly sought to take up arms against the slaveholding Confederacy, repeatedly urging Ohio governors to form black military units, to no avail. (One exception, a local light-skinned African American, John H. Cisco, enrolled as a white soldier in the 124TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY and was promoted to colonel in Aug. 1861.) Some blacks turned to the federal government: on 14 Aug. 1862, Newell Goodale issued a public call to form a regiment composed of local blacks and soon claimed to have 1,000 men. However, the U.S. secretary of war refused direct admission for the tro...
AFRO-AMERICAN CULTURAL & HISTORICAL SOCIETY MUSEUM. See AFRICAN AMERICAN MUSEUM.
The ART CLUB (also known as the Old Bohemians and the City Hall Colony) was founded by ARCHIBALD WILLARD in 1876. The group was initially composed of artists and friends, primarily of German extraction, who met at Willard's studio in the Union Natl. Bank Bldg. to discuss art and draw from live models. Later in 1876, after the group acquired rooms in City Hall in the Case Block, its aims were defined: to furnish instruction in drawing and painting of the same standard provided in foreign schools; to present exhibitions and lectures; and to assist art students. Prominent members of the group were Geo. Grossman, FREDERIC C. GOTTWALD, JOHN SEMON, Louis Loeb, Herman and JOHN HERKOMER, Daniel and Emil Wehrschmidt, Arthur Schneider, Chas. Henry Niehaus, and Max Bohm. Grossman later left Cleveland to found a New York City artists' colony. Semo...
BELARUSIANS. Belarusians (White Russians), from Eastern Europe, have settled in Cleveland at least since the last decade of the 19th century. Since U.S. immigration authorities did not recognize Belarusians as a separate ethnic group, immigrants coming to America during the last decade of the 19th century and the first 2 decades of the 20th century were listed as Russians, although, for the most part, they were actually Belarusians and Ukrainians. Belarusian immigrants often referred to themselves as "tutejshy," which in Belarusian meant "local"; one estimate is that 2,000-3,000 Belarusians in Cleveland derived from the tutejshy, most of whom came between 1894-1905. As many Belarusians did not have a clear sense of who they were ethnically, they often joined Polish or Lithuanian Roman Catholic churches, while others gravitated to Easte...
BP AMERICA, formerly the Standard Oil Co. (Ohio), which was the original Standard Oil Co. founded by JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER in 1870 along with his brother, William, HENRY M. FLAGLER, SAMUEL ANDREWS, and STEPHEN V. HARKNESS. Rockefeller entered the oil business full time in 1864 when he bought Andrews & Clarke Co., a firm which sold kerosene distilled from crude oil. Andrews remained associated with the company as it acquired the additional partners who would eventually charter Standard Oil Co. When organized in 1870, the company owned 2 refineries in Cleveland and had offices in the Cushing Block on PUBLIC SQUARE.Standard Oil Co.'s No. 1 Refinery Rockefeller and his associates successfully stabilized the chaotic new oil industry by combining refineries and centralizing management. Standard Oil controlled 21 of Cleveland's 26 refinerie...
CATHOLIC BIG BROTHERS & BIG SISTERS. See BIG BROTHER/BIG SISTER MOVEMENT.
UNITARIAN-UNIVERSALISM. The Unitarian and Universalist movements started in England and came to the Cleveland area separately early in the 19th century. Founded as protests against strict Calvinism, the unorthodox Protestant sects advocated freedom of thought and conscience. The American churches began in the East: Unitarianism in New England with the Transcendentalists, and Universalism in Pennsylvania with John Murray. The first Universalists to arrive were independent rural settlers. There were small Universalist societies, mostly served by traveling preachers, in: Newbury, ca. 1820; Aurora by 1822; Chardon as early as 1829; NORTH OLMSTED in 1834; and BEDFORD, Burton, Auburn, and Willoughby by 1850. In 1836 a church was organized in OHIO CITY, and a building was erected. Its 2 early pastors were Jacob Whitney and Alvin Dinsmore, pri...
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