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HAYES, MAX S. (MAXIMILIAN SEBASTIAN) (25 May 1866-11 Oct. 1945), LABOR spokesman and editor of the CLEVELAND CITIZEN, was born in Havanna, Ohio to Joseph and Elizabeth (Borer) Hayes. He was educated in common schools until 13, when he was apprenticed in printing. He completed his apprenticeship in Cleveland and was initiated as a journeyman in TYPOGRAPHICAL WORKERS UNION NO. 53 in 1884, serving the local as organizer, president, and delegate. In 1891, Hayes helped launch the Cleveland Citizen, editing it for almost 50 years. By 1896, he was a leading activist in the Socialist Labor party and secretary of the Central Labor Union. In 1898 he was CLU delegate to the AFL national convention, beginning his battle with Sam Gompers over demands for union democracy, solidarity, and independent political action by labor. He received one third o...
WILLIAMS, GERALDINE (1915-30 Aug. 1993), civic activist and strategist in POLITICS, planned and worked with other AFRICAN AMERICANS to draft and elect Carl Stokes as mayor of Cleveland (see MAYORAL ADMINISTRATION OF CARL B. STOKES). Williams was born in St. Louis, MO. A Fisk University graduate, she also studied at Kansas City Teachers College and the University of Colorado. As a teacher in Kansas City for a decade, Williams had extraordinary success in raising the test scores of underachievers. During WORLD WAR II, Williams volunteered with the USO (United Service Organization) at Fort Riley, KS and there met Elliott S. Pogue, Jr., of Cleveland, whom she married in 1943. After the war they returned to Cleveland and operated the private 32nd-Cedar Club in the Park-Lang Hotel. Williams helped manage the club after the couple divorced (1...
BREWING AND DISTILLING INDUSTRY. Cleveland's distilling industry dates almost to the city's founding. In 1800 David and Gilman Bryant are said to have operated a secondhand distillery, brought from Virginia, on the banks of the CUYAHOGA RIVER at the foot of Superior St. Their output was "two quarts of raw spirits a day," according to historian William Ganson Rose, which was used "in the household for medicinal purposes, as coin in commerce and trade, and as a pacifying influence over uneasy Indians." JOSIAH BARBER, who with his brother-in-law, RICHARD LORD, gave the village of Brooklyn (later the west side) its first economic boom, is said to have established that area's first industry, a distillery. By 1831 a distillery had been built on the narrow strip of land sheared off from the FLATS by the old river bed and the new channel of th...
KELSEY, LORENZO A. (22 Feb. 1803-13 Feb. 1890), steamboat captain and mayor of Cleveland from 1848-49, was born in Port Leyden, N.Y., the son of shipowner, Eber Kelsey and Lucy Ann Leete Kelsey. He was educated in his local district and moved to Youngstown to work in lumber. Kelsey moved to Cleveland in 1837 with his wife and became manager of the Cleveland House Hotel for 1 year. He then became captain of the steamship Chesapeake, and later captain of the General Harrison. He also served as proprietor (1818-19) of the New England Hotel. With no political experience, Kelsey ran as a dark-horse mayoral candidate for the Democratic party in 1848, defeating 2 other opponents, Chas. Bradburn and Milo Hickox. As mayor, Kelsey supported civic improvements and worked frequently with top members of the Democratic party. Throughout his career, ...
WHOLESALE GROCERS. Cleveland's wholesale grocery industry has played an important role in feeding the city--and the region--for more than a century and a half. The industry developed as the pioneer forwarding and commission merchants, who dealt in all types of goods, began to specialize in groceries alone. Many Cleveland-based wholesale grocers have come and gone over the years, but a few left a special mark on the city and deserve mention. Most of the town's earliest wholesale grocers carried dry goods or other types of products. Up through the 1850s, these firms were all located in the FLATS, close to the necessary water transportation: the Ohio Canal, the Cuyahoga River, and Lake Erie. Among these pioneer firms was Charles Bradburn & Co., which was in existence from the 1830s to the 1870s. Bradburn (1808-1872), also known as "the f...
CHILDREN AND YOUTH. Attitudes toward children and youth in Cleveland and the Western Reserve have varied over time, affected by local factors and national trends. One motif has been the change from viewing children as miniature adults with few rights to seeing them as autonomous individuals with unique needs. Class, gender, and ethnicity have always helped determine the characters of particular maturation experiences. Other persistent themes include an emphasis on education, concerns about infant mortality and health, worries over moral development, and exaltation of the family. Lay people, private FOUNDATIONS, and professionals in many fields initiated long-standing changes for local young people, while local researchers pioneered in areas such as child health, growth and development, and education. The few children in early Clevelan...
The CLEVELAND BROWNS are one of the most successful clubs in professional football history. Between 1946-83, they won 18 divisional titles, captured 8 league championships, and made the playoffs in 24 seasons. Under Bill Belichick, and led by all-pros Eric Turner and Leroy Howard, the Browns returned to the Conference Playoffs in 1994. As of 1995 13 Browns had been inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame: Jim Brown, PAUL BROWN, Dante Lavelli, LEN FORD, F. Gatski, Otto Graham, Lou Groza, Leroy Kelly, Mike McCormack, Bobby Mitchell, Marion Motley, Paul Warfield, and Bill Willis. The Browns organization was founded on 20 April 1945 by ARTHUR B. "MICKEY" MCBRIDE with the help of Robert H. Gries, whose family continued to own an important minority share of the Browns into the 1990s. The team, named after its first coach, Paul E. Brown,...
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