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The TW EASTON CORP. (formerly Thomas W. Easton's Sons, Inc.) was established by Thomas W. Easton in 1870 as an industrial moving concern. The firm's services included the rigging and hauling of heavy machinery and equipment, as well as steel erection, crane and equipment rental, and warehouse services. While continuing to move major equipment, the company, located at 8915 Crane Ave., responded to the changing high-technology economy by specializing in the transportation and installation of medical diagnostic equipment and automated systems. The carrier, which operated locally and in the northeast quadrant of the U.S., became a division of Forest City Erectors, Inc. of Twinsburg. In 1994 the 124-year-old company was still in business.
EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCHES. There are many parallels between the beliefs of the Eastern Orthodox church and those of the Roman Catholic church, but there are also fundamental differences. Some of the beliefs and traditions unique to Eastern Orthodoxy help to explain both the role of the church in the life of Cleveland's Orthodox immigrants and the impact of American society on the churches. Eastern Orthodox Christians contend that all bishops have equal authority, rejecting Roman Catholicism's claim of universal supremacy of the Bishop of Rome, i.e., the Pope. During the Middle Ages, Eastern Orthodoxy evolved into several independent exarchates and patriarchies, with the patriarch of Constantinople as honorary leader. However, each of the other patriarchies was a separate entity with its own leader or patriarch (autocephalous). Supreme ...
PRESBYTERIANS. The Presbyterian Church established itself in the Cleveland area in 1807, among the earliest Protestant denominations, and developed rapidly. Presbyterianism originated in the 16th-century Protestant Reformation and the teachings of John Calvin of Switzerland and John Knox of Scotland. Its representative form of government incorporates a "priesthood of all believers," in which clergy and laity differ only in function, and an equality of all clergy (no bishops). Governance is carried out by clergy and laity at all levels: the session (governing board of each church), presbytery (a group of churches), synod (a regional group of presbyteries), and national General Assembly (the highest legislative body). By the beginning of the 18th century, the Presbyterian church in America was a mixture of New England Puritans, Scots-Iri...
POLES. Poles formed one of Cleveland's largest nationality groups in the 20th century and had an important influence on the city, particularly during its period of heavy industrial growth. Individuals may have visited or temporarily settled in the area before the Civil War, but the first cohesive settlement of Poles occurred in BEREA in the late 1860s, where they were employed in the stone quarries. At about this time, isolated groups of Poles arrived in Cleveland; 77 were counted in the 1870 census. The Cleveland Poles did not form a specific neighborhood at this time but settled within the Czech community around Croton St. Several factors subsequently increased Polish migration to Cleveland, especially German cultural pressures in Prussian Poland and poverty and repression in Russian Poland. Combined with relatively safe and inexpens...
POLITICS. For most of its history, Cleveland has been governed much like other American cities. A mayor elected at large and a council chosen by wards have usually constituted the formal instruments of administration and legislation, while a multiplicity of private groups have sought to influence the direction of public policy. With some exceptions, Cleveland's mayors before World War II were business and professional men of old-stock Protestant ancestry. Those who were 2nd-generation Americans, such as HARRY L. DAVIS and FRED KOHLER, were Protestants whose fathers came from Wales and Germany, respectively. The election of FRANK LAUSCHE in 1941 brought Catholic and Slovenian background to the mayoralty, and since Lausche, Cleveland's mayors have come from a variety of ethnic backgrounds and from the black community (see AFRICAN AMERICA...
POLKAS. American polka music evolved as a hybrid of folk songs and dances brought by European immigrants, with influences from other musical expressions. The term has come to encompass waltzes, schottisches, quicksteps, mazurkas, and other ethnic dances. Cleveland has been called "America's Polka Capital" and was identified with a particular style of polka music that has been widely copied. The polka was a European sensation before it swept America in the 1840s. The dance and its variations were already in the repertoires of local musicians by 1845, when JACKSON LELAND penned a quickstep for his Cleveland Brass Band. Lively polkas and romantic waltzes were popular throughout the Victorian era. Two typical titles by area composers were "The Put-in-Bay Polka" (1871) and "The Irresistible Schottische" (1885). The city's orchestras present...
The OHIO ROUNDTABLE, 11288 Alameda Drive, STRONGSVILLE, was established by a group of NortheasternOhio citizens and business leaders in 1980 as a non-profit, non-partisan research and educational organization (thinktank) dedicated to a mission of "Restoring traditional Judeo-Christian principles to American public policy."
AACCESS-OHIO, the Arab American Community Center for Economic & Social Services in Ohio, was established in December 1991 as a nonprofit service organization and community center. Its mission is to meet the economic, social, and cultural needs of Cleveland's Arab American community, and to promote better understanding of Arab culture while integrating Arab Americans into the mainstream of American life. AACCESS-OHIO provides an array of services to its constituents, including referrals for medical, legal, and social services, assistance in immigration matters, aid to needy families, Arabic and English communication services (such as document translation, faxes, and word processing, student tutoring, and voter registration). AACCESS-OHIO also publishes a quarterly newsletter, the Community Pulse. In 1995, it was located at 10006 Lorain ...
MARY INGERSOLL CLUB FOR WORKING GIRLS. See WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION, NON-PARTISAN, OF CLEVELAND.
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