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REAL ESTATE. The history of real estate development in Cleveland is the story of property owners who speculated on the economic future of the city and anticipated the effect of growth upon property values in different locations. They attempted to subdivide, or allot, the land into the best configuration of building lots, to supply these lots with the necessary improvements, and to promote the project to potential buyers; all in competition with one another and with the threat of periodic bank panics looming over them. Whenever possible they endeavored to get a governmental entity to pay the costs of new roads, bridges, canals, railroads, parks, industries, or public buildings and sometimes held public office to ensure the success of their ventures. During the two centuries of Cleveland's history the opportunities for real estate profit...
AMERITRUST, the largest bank in the midwest at one time, was established in 1894 as the Cleveland Trust Co. with $500,000 capital and John G. W. Cowles as its first president. In 1903 Cleveland Trust merged with the Western Reserve Trust Co., and kept their offices open as branches. At that time, Calvary Morris succeeded Cowles. Having outgrown a series of rented offices by 1905, the bank built a new headquarters bldg. at E. 9th and Euclid, which opened in 1908. During the presidency of FREDERICK GOFF (1908-23), Cleveland Trust expanded, acquiring banks such as the Detroit St. Bank, the Garfield Savings Bank, and Lake Shore Banking & Trust. By 1924 Cleveland Trust became the 6th largest bank in the country and Harris Creech was its new president. The bank survived the Depression well, and after GEO. GUND succeeded him as president in 1...
WOLDMAN, ALBERT A. (1 Jan. 1897-30 Dec. 1971), lawyer and CUYAHOGA COUNTY JUVENILE COURT judge, was born in Russia to Isadore and Gertrude (Kudish) Woldman. He came to Cleveland with his family at 18 months. Woldman graduated with an A.B. from Adelbert College in 1917, and attended Western Reserve and Ohio Northern law schools, graduating with a LL.B. in 1919. In 1914, he became the youngest probation officer in juvenile court's history. While in college, he worked as a reporter for the CLEVELAND PRESS and assistant state editor for the PLAIN DEALER. Between 1919-41, Woldman maintained his private practice and taught at John Marshall Law School. In 1941, he became Cleveland's assistant law director; in 1945, chairman of the Ohio Bureau of Unemployment Compensation's Board of Review; in 1949, director of Ohio's Dept. of Industrial Relat...
AFRICAN AMERICANS. Cleveland's African American community is almost as old as the city itself. GEORGE PEAKE, the first black settler, arrived in 1809 and by 1860 there were 799 blacks living in a growing community of over 43,000. As early as the 1850s, most of Cleveland's African American population lived on the east side. But black and white families were usually interspersed; until the beginning of the 20th century, nothing resembling a black ghetto existed in the city. Throughout most of the 19th century, the social and economic status of African Americans in Cleveland was superior to that in other northern communities. By the late 1840s, the public schools were integrated and segregation in theaters, restaurants, and hotels was infrequent. Interracial violence seldom occurred. Black Clevelanders suffered less occupational discrimin...
FUNERAL HOMES AND FUNERAL PRACTICES. Pre-canal era. In late May of 1797, David Eldridge, a drover sent out on the Connecticut Land Co.'s second survey, drowned while trying to cross the Grand River. His body was brought to Cleveland and buried around 1 June in a hastily set up graveyard east of Ontario and north of Prospect St. (original plots 97 and 98). Known simply as "the burial ground," it served the city's needs until the ERIE ST. CEMETERY opened in 1826. The first recorded burial in the new cemetery was infant Minerva M. White in 1827. In Cleveland's pre-canal period, burials followed a frugal, expeditious New England village pattern. Funerals were handled by friends or family members; the funeral service and burial were from the home; and the only outsider called on for help was the cabinetmaker, who measured the deceased and ...
FRIEDMAN, HAROLD J. (25 Dec. 1905-7 Jan. 1993), allergist, developed Cleveland's monitoring of the pollen count. Having proved that both household dust and silk could also trigger allergic reactions, he spurred drug manufacturers to eliminate silk fibers from typhoid vaccine production. A winner of the Distinguished Service Award from the American Academy of Allergy (1972), Friedman published research and served as associate editor of the Journal of Allergy and Immunology. Born in Ashtabula, OH, to Goldie and Abraham Friedman, he was raised in Cleveland and graduated from East High School and Ohio State University, where he received both a B.S. and an M.D. (1932). Friedman interned and spent his residencies in City Hospital, New York City before returning to Cleveland in 1940. He served on the staffs of the MT. SINAI MEDICAL CENTE...
BURTON, HAROLD HITZ (22 June 1888-29 Oct. 1964), mayor of Cleveland, U.S. senator, and associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, was born in Jamaica Plains, Mass., to Dr. Alfred Edgar and Gertrude Hitz Burton. He graduated from Bowdoin College (1909), and received his LL.B. from Harvard Law School (1912) after which he came to Cleveland to work for two years. He served during WORLD WAR I, receiving a citation from the U.S. Government, the Purple Heart, and the Belgian Croix de Guerre. Burton practiced law in Cleveland after the war. He was elected to the Ohio state legislature in 1928 as a Republican. From 1930-31 he was Cleveland law director, becoming acting mayor from Nov. 1931-Feb. 1932, and in 1935 was elected mayor for the first of 3 terms. During his administration, the rackets in Cleveland were broken up; and the mayor pro...
CANKARJEV GLASNIK (Cankar's Herald) was a Cleveland-based national literary monthly published in Slovenian, featuring fiction, essays, plays, and reviews. Most SLOVENES settling in the U.S. were literate and sought to continue their language here with newspapers and other publications. Although a few short-lived literary magazines had been attempted in Cleveland and elsewhere, Cankarjev Glasnik was published in Cleveland at a time when Slovenian-American cultural consciousness was at a peak. The nonprofit Cankarjeva Ustanova (Cankar Foundation) had been formed in 1936 to erect a memorial to Slovenian author Ivan Cankar in the Yugoslav Cultural Garden. A literary monthly was proposed that would espouse progressive principles and appeal to the common man and intellectuals alike; the first issue appeared in Aug. 1937, with one of Cankar's...
The CLEVELAND ARTISTS FOUNDATION (CAF) is a nonprofit organization committed to preserving Greater Cleveland's artistic heritage, and to researching and exhibiting the work of Northeastern Ohio artists. Founding director William G. Scheele established the organization in 1984 with support from several foundations and a grant from the Ohio Arts Council. Although its original focus was on the "Cleveland School" of artists active from 1900-50, it later broadened its attention to encompass predecessors and successors of that central group. By the late 1990s, CAF also occasionally exhibited work by contemporary artists living and working in Greater Clevealnd. From 1986-89 CAF operated the Northeast Ohio Museum on Bellflower Road in UNIV. CIRCLE. After closing the museum for economic reasons, from 1988 to 1991 CAF was housed in the Junior L...
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