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Turbulence in complex, recirculating flows not in spectral equilibrium. Report discusses mathematical fluid-flow model that includes multiple turbulence scales. Model developed for numerical prediction of confined, recirculating flows. Based on multiple-timescale concepts introduced in previous study, model takes into account turbulence in recirculating flow not in spectral equilibrium and different energy-transfer rates for eddies of different spatial scales treated separately.
The series of studies conducted in this thesis showed that there are several ways to enhance the performance of fixed restorations regarding the application of zirconia. One possible way is to change the sintering procedure of zirconia, so that the physical properties of zirconia such BFS, density or grain size can also be changed. In the other hand, with the experimental zirconia-silica coating technique, the bond strength of zirconia frameworks can be improved, in order to reduce the clinic failure rate caused by debonding. Besides the improvement of zirconia itself, it can be also used to reinforce other materials as a substitute to the brittle veneering porcelains. Furthermore, the zirconia nanoparticles can be used as fillers for both traditionally or industrially fabricated resin composite, whose in vitro performance is still qui...
1.Growth hormone (Gli) secretion is thought to occur under the reciprocal regulation of two hypothalamic hormones, namely GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF), through their engagement with specific cell-surface receptors on the anterior pituitary somatotropes.
Voltage-gated K+ currents in rat somatotrophs are increased by somatostatin (SRIF) through unidentified G protein. In this experiment, somatotroph-enriched cells (up to 85%) were obtained from ovine pituitary glands and further identified by the increase in K+ currents by SRIF. The whole cell recording was employed to study the voltage-gated K+ currents. A reversible increase in K+ currents (up to 150% of control) was obtained in response to local application of SRIF (10 nM) but not vehicle. When the guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) was included in the pipette solution (200 mu M), the recovery phase of K+ current response to SRIF was abolished. Inclusion of guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (200 mu M) in pipette solution blocked the K+ current response to SRIF. Intracellular dialysis of antibodies against alpha(o)-, alpha(i)-...
1. Growth hormone (GH) secretion from the anterior pituitary gland is mainly regulated by hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF). Somatostatin reduces both spontaneous and GHRH-stimulated GH secretion.
Influx of Ca2+ via Ca2+ channels is the major step triggering exocytosis of pituitary somatotropes to release growth hormone (GH). Voltage-gated Ca2+ and K+ channels, the primary determinants of the influx of Ca2+ in somatotropes, are regulated by CII-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF) through G protein-coupled signalling systems. Using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, the changes of the Ca2+ and K+ currents in primary cultured somatotropes were recorded and signalling systems were studied using pharmacological reagents and intracellular dialysis of non-permeable molecules including antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides. GHRH increased both L-and T-types Ca2+ currents and decreased transient (I-A) and delayed rectified (I-K) K+ currents. The increase in Ca2+ currents by GHRH was mediated by cAMP/protein kinase...
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