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Taxoid is a member of a class of anticancer drugs derived from Yew (Taxus species) trees. This includes paclitaxel and docetaxel, which have found wide commercial exploitation. Currently taxoids are extracted from the taxus species through chemical extraction from needles, barks and through cell culture. These are chemical intensive processes and destroy the tree in the process of extraction too. The concentration of taxoids in the trees is also very low. Thus to treat one patient (2 g of paclitaxel), six 60-100 year old trees are required. This has led the species to the verge of extinction. Also the cost of the drug is sky high at 36.5€ per mg. Cheaper alternative to the natural paclitaxel do exist in the market but they have a much lower spectrum of curing ability. Hence doctors prefer to use the natural drug. Two researchers, Mar...
Comment: 17 pages, 1 figure, Typos fixed
A study is presented which shows that the growth of the plastic zone and the constraint in a compact tension specimen depends significantly on specimen width. The analysis permits the estimation of the contribution of the growth of plastic zone to the deviation from linearity. The contribution of the crack growth to the deviation from linearity is evaluated from the analysis of a typical R-curve data. A combination of these two analyses enables one to define a very simple procedure for the determination of fracture toughness. The fracture toughness is defined as the stress intensity value at which the crack extension starts. The good agreement between analytical results and experimental KQ and KIC values determined over a wide range of thicknesses, widths, and materials justifies the proposed procedures. The KIC determined according to...
Cutaneous involvement in renal disease is due to a host of factors ranging from metabolic disturbances to immunosuppressive drugs. Herein we report a series of six cases of renal failure with varied cutaneous manifestations ranging from infections to neoplasms due to prolonged immunosuppression. Our first case had cutaneous cryptococcosis where skin lesions gave a clue to the diagnosis of altered sensorium and underlying meningitis. The second case initially presented with florid warts and was treated successfully but later presented with an explosive recurrence of skin lesions due to malignant transformation. Our third case had basal cell carcinoma over the presternal region that was successfully treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Our fourth case had diabetic nephropathy that presented with septicemia and purpura fulminans. The...
This thesis has explored the possibility of using carbon nanotubes (CNT) as a novel material for through-silicon vias (TSV) in 3D-integrated circuits. With the steady downscaling trend of the semiconductor industry, a major limiting factor to the overall performance of the device is the delay from interconnects; a trend that is worsening over successive technology nodes. As a remedy to this, the industry has been exploring the possibility of fabricating three dimensional integrated circuits, with shorter interconnect lengths (hence delay). Even then, the standard interconnect (or via) material, which is copper, poses a host of physical and technological challenges that constrain the development of this technology. The carbon nanotube is considered to be a promising alternative to copper, which can alleviate most of these problems. Th...
Cutaneous involvement in renal disease is due to a host of factors ranging from metabolic disturbances to immunosuppressive drugs. Herein we report a series of six cases of renal failure with varied cutaneous manifestations ranging from infections to neoplasms due to prolonged immunosuppression. Our first case had cutaneous cryptococcosis where skin lesions gave a clue to the diagnosis of altered sensorium and underlying meningitis. The second case initially presented with florid warts and was treated successfully but later presented with an explosive recurrence of skin lesions due to malignant transformation. Our third case had basal cell carcinoma over the presternal region that was successfully treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Our fourth case had diabetic nephropathy that presented with septicemia and purpura fulminans. The...
We report the low temperature resistivity [\rho(T)] measurement of the \gamma-phase crystalline alloys $Fe_xNi_{80-x}Cr_{20} (63 \geq x \geq 50)$ in the temperature range 0.4 K-20 K. We observe of resistivity minima occurring in the temperature range $T_{min}$ = 6-11 K. Below the minima $(T < T_{min}/2)$, the rise in $\rho$(T) follows a \sqrt{T} law indicating electron-electron interactions as the origin of this rise. In this alloy system by varying x one can go from a long range ordered antiferrogmagnetic to a ferromagnetic phase passing through spin glass and reenterant spin glass phases. We find that the \sqrt{T} temperature dependence of $\rho$(T) for $T < T_{min}$ is preserved irrespective of the type of magnetic order.
In this paper, we examine the urbanization history and policies of China and India with a special emphasis on the lower order cities. We consider the proposition that, as the developing countries continue to urbanize at a rapid pace, the lower order cities can play a potentially effective role in guiding future urbanization and in securing a balanced economic and spatial development. Through an examination of the urbanization records, policies, and performance of the lower order cities in these two countries we discuss the 'top-down' versus the 'bottom-up' approaches to urbanization strategy and national development. We conclude by discussing the nature of the differences between the urbanization policies of China and India and the transferability of the Chinese experience to other contexts.
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